Saturday, December 16, 2017

A (Klingon) Christmas Carol


and yes, they are working on a Klingon Bible translation.

also in Quenya, Na'vi and LOLCat....

The Prayer to say before connecting to the Internet (LOL)

From Father Z: 

also in Vulcan and a lot of earth languages.

However, it is not there in Dwarvish or in Sinadarin.

Presumably although Star Trek geeks read Father Z, Tolkien geeks do not. Sigh.

However, if your Klingon is a bit rusty, the English translation is:

A prayer before logging onto the internet:
Almighty and eternal God, who created us in Thine image and bade us to seek after all that is good, true and beautiful, especially in the divine person of Thine Only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, grant, we beseech Thee, that, through the intercession of Saint Isidore, Bishop and Doctor, during our journeys through the internet we will direct our hands and eyes only to that which is pleasing to Thee and treat with charity and patience all those souls whom we encounter. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.

Rewrite the history books

James of Ireland beat Marco Polo to China. .


and the English are not "Anglo Saxons": They have a lot of DNA of the 'Iron age" inhabitants of that country (read Celts) and other DNA from nearby Dutch. 

MaryBeard discusses an Algerian born soldier in Roman Britain and the multi ethnic composition of their soldiers with the racists of both sides.


The famine of 1314,

“A kink in Europe’s climate during the fourteenth century indirectly triggered a seven-year cataclysm that left six million dead,
this may have weakened the population, so made them more vulnerable to the Black death.

and the cat killing hysteria was not the cause of the spread of the plague: History for Atheists, a site that debunks this in detail.

Scientific America reprints a 1911 article on the black plague epidemic in China and India at that time and killed tens of millions of people.

 This was the "Third plague epidemic" (the first being the Plague of Justinian and the second the Black death of the middle ages).

it even spread to San Francisco... and from there, into the squirrel population, and left a small nucleus of germs in various wildlife in the South Western USA, which is why the IHS docs in the Navajo reservation see a couple cases each year.

which is why the WHO is worried about the latest epidemic in Madagascar spreading to mainland Africa, although the isolation and treatment of cases seems to be working.


Related item: Genetically modified Rats? 

Friday, December 15, 2017

The Durrells

The latest version of "My Family and other Animals", AKA the Durrells, is back on TV.

Like all good stories, it is edited for content and to simplify the plot.

Here is an account of the (complications and women) left out of the story.

more background stories about the series HERE.

You can watch it on the Masterpiece theatre PBS site, but not if you live in the Philippines. because of our copyright laws or something.

Alas it hasn't hit our area (we tend to get regular shows within a year, and hit shows advertise they are "on the same day as the USA", but these BBC/PBS type shows tend to get here a bit late)...

However, some of it is on Youtube, but with the usual bad distortions so they aren't breaking the copyright.

Brother Larry's Greece:

Actually, I read Lawrence's R rated books years ago in college, and wasn't aware that Gerald was his brother until I read his books this year:  My Family and Other Animals.

Philippine news

I reported that last month the French company behind the Dengue Vaccine that has been given to hundreds of thousands of children here put out a warning that it might exacerbate severe cases.

(In Dengue, there are several types, and if you survive one type and get another case, you are at a higher danger of the hemorrhage/fatal disease, due to antibody problems. There is a worry that the vaccine will do the same thing: Something doctors worried about, but were overruled).

Well, the latest headlines are that there are fewer cases of Dengue this year in the Philippines.LINK.

The Philippines reported more than 200,000 dengue fever cases during the past two years (2015 and 2016) being among the highest in Asia. However, there is some good news in 2017. During the first nine months of the year, health officials have reported a total of 97,287 dengue cases including 526 deaths.

however, the Manila Bulletin notes that in contrast to the rest of the country, cases increased in the Manila region. It has been rainier than usual this year, so presumably it is from more mosquitoes.

In our town, the open drainage ditches had been covered in a project complete with huge signs that it was being done by the mayor. (she lost and was replaced by a reform mayor).

The drainage ditches had been made larger and covered so that the palenke would not flood in heavy rains.

The problem? She must have used shoddy cement, because not only did the street at our corner collapse over the drainage ditch, but I now count three areas where the smaller ditch coverings have collapsed, presumably from cars parking on the side of the road.

The area is getting very heave traffic due to increase in population and prosperity. So the main street is changed to one way when it nears the palenke, and the detour around the palenke for the other direction is around our house.

The amount of garbage on the street is less: partly due to the bins for garbage along the street, and partly because we now see street cleaners cleaning up the streets.

Plastic bags continue to be a problem: because of shop lifting, they put every little thing in a plastic bag with a receipt to prove you bought it, even when I point out they can add it to my larger bag or let me put it in my purse. Sigh.

And the central square is now all clean and decorated for Christmas... and there are covered kiosks for the street food: most of them open in the late afternoon for the "night market" nearby. (due to heat, lots of shopping is in the evening or early morning). And of course, the square is a big place for young people to hang out: Includes a playground, and every morning has exercize class.

Colombian news

StrategyPage reports Colombia won the war against FARC, but some of the soldiers instead have morphed (completely and now openly) into criminals, and criminal gangs are taking over where they used to reign.

Sounds like here in the Philippines.

but the report also includes stuff about Venezuela, where China is threatening to ask for their loans to be paid, or else go to US courts to get the money back (from Venezuelan assets outside the country). Also reports on China's infiltration of the South American market.

But the real story that the pro socialist loving types haven't noticed: Lots of Venezuelan refugees.

Neighbors Colombia and Brazil are lining up foreign help for the millions of Venezuelans who may try and flee the starvation and record crime rates in Venezuela. Colombia has counted at least half a million Venezuelans arriving (not all of them legally) in the last six months. Fewer have gone to Brazil but that is mainly because it is easier to get to the Colombian border. The UN is limited in what it can do because Russia and China continue to use their vetoes to block UN efforts to do anything the current Venezuelan government objects to.

Thursday, December 14, 2017

Is the Pope Catholic?

Pope Francis does it again... video for later watching, but my quick take is that it is not good.


the kerfuffle about the Pope changing the wording of the "our father" from the Elizabethan "lead us not into temptation" is not a big thing: DavidWarren comments:

The (characteristically glib and fatuous) argument of the progressives was that the KJV translation had, in the course of three or four centuries, gone out of date. Many words had changed in meaning. (A good example is “temptation,” as in the Lord’s Prayer. It meant a testing then, as Jesus in the desert; it means a chocolate cake now.)

 But the Pope's "new translation" of the prayer actually isn't.

here is the actual quote:

In a new television interview, Pope Francis said the common rendering of one line in the prayer – “lead us not into temptation” – was “not a good translation” from ancient texts. “Do not let us fall into temptation,” he suggested, might be better because God does not lead people into temptation; Satan does.

Oh: FYI in Spanish that line is:

No nos dejes caer en tentaciĆ³n

Dejes is allow, permit, and Caer translates fall or fall down.

In other words, he thinks the Spanish translation he grew up with is closer to the biblical meaning than the one based on Elizabethan English.

Alas the MSM is interpreting it as saying he wants to change the concept behind the words, which is causing a lot of raised eyebrows.

GetReligion blog and crux discuss the kerfuffle and bad report job.

Operation Petticoat

alas most of the rest are not available: A lot of classic films are owned by Turner Classic movies and/or still under copyright.

Best Navy and leadership films

USNaval Institute has a blog about films about the Navy (e,g, In Harm's Way, The Caine Mutiny, Mr Roberts, Operation Tokyo) and films that teach leadership (e.g. Fort Apache, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon, The Cruel Sea).

Most of the choices are obvious: but why is Operation Petticoat there?

The other Cary Grant submarine movie – this time a comedy – and a pretty good one. Tony Curtis is great as the officer assigned to get spare parts “no questions asked” which was, back in the day (and perhaps today), a valuable skill set. Was there really a pink submarine in the Navy?

well, according to IMDb:

A submarine based at Cavite, the USS Seadragon, did go on patrol with a red paint job. Her original black paint was damaged by fire in the air raid, and ended up peeling off while she was on patrol. She ended up sinking three Japanese ships during the time her paint was peeling, leading Tokyo Rose to make broadcasts about "Red pirate submarines."

Wikipedia link. 

Three salvos of bombs dropped close aboard, but Seadragon went deep and again made her way eastward—this time to investigate the cause of the plane sightings. She surfaced after 18:00. No oil or air leaks were spotted, but her black paint was coming off the entire hull. Red lead undercoating showed from the waterline to the side plating, and, "in spots", on the bow planes and propeller guards. In shallow tropical waters, her original black paint was easily spotted against a light colored background. With red showing, she stood out regardless of the color of the seabed. From then on, Seadragon ran at 140 feet (43 m) between periscope exposures except in areas known to be patrolled by air, when she went to 200 feet (61 m).

Family news

Joy bought me a new laptop computer for Christmas. Wonderful!

So I won't be able to blame my spelling mistakes etc. on the old computer sticky keys.

Blogging will be light due to having to do updates etc.

Wednesday, December 13, 2017

History lectures of the week

Naval battles that changed history

and the archeology of the Trojan war:

quick: Before the copy right cops find them.

but if you want something different: the latest Stephanie Plum series. Alligators vs Zombies. Not very PC, but hey, she's from Jersey.

caution: Put coffee down before listening.

Conspiracy theory of the week

Amazon/CIA/Bezos/WaPost/Deepstate nexus?

I ran across this factoid in a very funny (as in sarcastic) article (via Instapundit) about anti trump mania:

...Fortunately, just in the nick of time, the ruling classes and their media mouthpieces rolled out the Russian Propaganda story. The Washington Post (whose owner’s multimillion dollar deal with the CIA, of course, has absolutely no effect on the quality of its professional journalism) led the charge... 
italics mine. WTF?

sure enough it was covered in this 2014 article in the Atlantic.

But it shows a "follow the money" link  between Amazon and the CIA. And Amazon's founder Bezos now owns the WAPO.

Fast forward to Dec 2016: Global Research: CIA cloud over the Washington Post.

ZeroHedge explains: What you aren't told about the Washington Post, Russia and the CIA.

So is the evidence of a deep state/CIA collusion to overthrow Trumpie boy? Who knows. A lot of the stuff is routine nonsense one always sees, but this year it seems to be a bit over the top, and Trump, who probably has lots of experience with crooked politicians, Mafia unions, and overcharging businessmen, seems to love it.

Backstory: everyone in the Philippines knows how the US Ambassador manipulated the press to try to destroy Duterte over a bad joke. and probably also with money and their social media chorus. (the same ambassador who was thrown out after interfering with an election in Bolivia). This is widely believed here, even by Miriam, a popular and honest politician who probably would have been elected if she hadn't been very ill.

So is this evidence of the deep state collusion against Trumpie boy?

who knows. I love to read conspiracy theories, but don't necessarily believe them. I view them as exaggerating a small snippet of truth and making it the entire story, which is it not.

As for the cloud: No, I don't back up there. Not from paranoia but because I no longer am in business. And besides, anyone who thinks the cloud can't be hacked is naive.

I have had my yahoo email and Amazon account hacked, and even my government personnel file was hacked by the Chinese.  So why does anyone think the cloud is safe?

Tuesday, December 12, 2017

more bioethics scandals

DA of Orange County California shut down a big illegal medical scam of selling "tissue from abortions".

LATimes: 2 companies reahch $7.7 million dollar settlement

Wesley Smith has more here.

more at my medical blog. This is the tip of the iceburg about body parts: not just from late term abortions but in organ donations and is x rated.

Mama Mary is watching

The SJW pretend honoring the bloody Aztecs represent all Indios and Metzisos in the US, and there are not one but two Hollywood films emphasizing the pagan aspects of The Day of the Dead (aka all Saints day) without noting any Catholic aspect to the feast.

But the actual Mexican fiesta is today, in honor of the metziso Virgin who appeared in Mexico to an Aztec convert dressed in native dress. The picture is found in most Mexican homes, reminding them that at a time when the Spanish wondered if they were fully human, nevertheless Mama Mary appeared to one of their own and reminded them "am I not your mother?".

Dallas news article here about the local fiesta. And a lot of other cities hold the fiesta in the USA, and also here in the Philippines.

The shrine in Mexico city is one of the largest pilgrimage sites in the world.

more at Mercatornet, which puts the vision into social historical and cultural context, and notes: Loved by the people, but hated by the anti religious elites.

While Our Lady of Guadalupe is enormously popular in Mexico, the image – being inextricably linked to Catholicism – is not universally loved. The struggle between the religious and the irreligious has been one of the key conflicts in Mexican history...
During the 1920s, the Catholic Church was viciously persecuted by the leftist victors of the Mexican Revolution. Priests were shot, churches were burned and in some regions of the country the practice of Catholicism was outlawed completely.
...  Indeed, in his book about Mexico of the 1930s, Evelyn Waugh writes of how during the fiercest persecutions, the Indians guarded the Basilica at Guadalupe day and night, for fear that anti-clerical forces would attempt to rid Mexico of the tilma once and for all. During the 1920s, far-left elements did succeed in getting a large bomb into the Basilica, and detonating it underneath the image, but the tilma was left strangely untouched by the blast.
and of course, modern evangelicals have a great hatred of Mama Mary, seeing her as a false goddess in rival of God, not as one who shows us God loves ordinary families and Jesus had a mother who he respected. No, Mary is not "worshipped" or "adored". She is honored. Educated Catholics know the difference, but never mind: The bigots define the words differently to confuse the uneducated.

But in modern times, feminists have remade her as a goddess figure, history is rewritten to make her a conspiracy by evil priests, and of course, avant garde artists portray her with ridicule.

Why, given the irrefutable fact that Our Lady of Guadalupe is an integral part of Mexican identity, did Diego Rivera choose to all but omit it from his definitive account of his country’s history? The underlying ideology of The History of Mexico is Marxist, and according to this ideology, religion is simply the opium of the masses, and a tool for the exploitation of the proletariat. The role of religion in Mexican life was a baleful one in Rivera’s eyes, and he predicted that it would have no role in the bright future which his painting predicted was inevitable. Our Lady of Guadalupe, therefore, presented the artist with a difficult problem. As an atheist, by definition, Rivera had to believe that the story of the apparition was built on lies, probably dreamt up by the clerical-colonial elite. 
and the hatred continues: modern PC artists continue to ridicule the Virgin (and those stupid deplorables who honor her). Because mother hood, dignity and pregnancy are soooo yesterday.

What is that part about pregnancy?

The Virgin of Guadalupe is not only a dark virgin, showing she is the mother of all, but is shown with her sash high up, meaning she is pregnant... and is therefore the patron of the pro life movement.

Another reason for the PC to hate her.

Stories behind the news

Busy day again today, so bookmarked for later reading;

Dilbert sees common goals between BLM and the Republicans.

jobs, safe neighborhoods, and cops who are accountable. Sounds fine to me.

My Hispanic sons know about the abuse of "driving while Hispanic": getting a ticket for speeding on an interstate when no one obeyed the speed limit.... but of course, the interstate happened to be a major drug smuggling route from NYC to the midwest at the time.


Ralph Peters on why the Arab street didn't explode. (via Instapundit)

also via Instapundit: New melanoma immunotherapy seems to work.

Sigh. I arranged Joy's sister to get into one immunotherapy protocol in Manila when her melanoma metastasized, but it only prolonged her life for four months. Sigh.

They've been experimenting with "immunotherapy" for melanoma since I was in medical school, so one does hope maybe after 45 years they got it right.


Long report on the Philippines on Strategy Page.

Don't tell the MSM that terrorism (both NPA and Islamic) and drugs are related, and by fighting back we are now safer.

the bad news is China is winning. Obama stopped PNoy from stopping them from dredging up the West Philippine sea to make artificial islands, so now only a war will get them out. And Obama held back weapons to punish Duterte for the "drug war" (actually because the CIA candidate didn't win) so we got rifles from China instead to fight the Marawi takeover, and now they are asking favors back.

they do note the US helped the Marawi fight by aerial surveillance however.

not mentioned: That during the election we got an ambassador who had been thrown out of Bolivia for interfering with the election. So how did Duterte win? The "deplorables" here ignored their betters because they knew he was tough but fair.

Will he stop corruption? Probably not, but maybe there will be less of it.

The Catholic bishops here are SJW all the time: pro green and anti drug war ("Extra judicial killings"). But most of the corrupt politicians are good Catholics, and the middle class is turning evangelical in our area.... but Tagle is running for Pope, so it's not about poor Filipinos getting jobs, but about the NWO agenda of Pope Francis...


Side note: We get CNN, Japanese, local, BBC, Bloomberg and AlJ here.

CNN tends to discuss anti Trump all the time, and if you watch them you would think the impeachment was nigh.

Scanning the news stations, I ran across a discussion of the Jerusalem embassy on Al Jazerrah: which is pro Arab and filled with American leftists.

They actually discussed both sides of the issue. Who wudda thot? AlJ is fairer than CNN...

One comment: Does the press note Trump's son has business ties here? Like TRex and the Saudis, I suspect that they are using business tactics and personal links and information from business contacts rather than obey the CIA in their overseas diplomacy, but I haven't read a lot about this anywhere.

the dirty little secret is that "moderate" Islam has always been favorable to trade and commerce (as opposed to modern liberal Christianity, which does have a socialist bias).

The Nobel Prize was won by a group who wants everyone to sing kumbaya and get rid of nuclear weapons. Interview here.
In reality they want unilateral western nuclear disarmament, something the US Catholic bishops were pushing 40 years ago.

part of a larger "progressive" social agenda, of course: quick question: Israel has quietly had nukes for years. Does anyone really think that if Iran or Saddam's Iraq had nukes they would not use them to destroy Israel?

Family news

Lolo's will has finally been settled, and the court settlement insists that Lolo's stepdaughter be compensated and the will be applied as per Lolo's wishes, not as interpreted by his son.

Hope it works. I have a (small) private income and a lawyer if not.

My stepson actually told the court that my income was larger than his from the farm. I am on a small pension plus SS, since much of my work was in low income areas I don't have a lot of savings.

I have little sympathy for him, since in the last five years of my husband's life he not only used my husband's SS and larger pension for his expenses (while I paid for the food for family and staff) but he managed to empty the entire savings accounts, including money gifted to his stepdaughter.

I get nothing from the will, although I understand my husband put my name of some properties (I can't own them here under law, but it was to give me a guaranteed income so I could get residency here). I also was granted the income from the apartment he gifted to his granddaughter, mainly so her father wouldn't sell the property or use the income, the idea being that she could live there if she attends college in Manila, and until then have the rent for her tuition fees and expenses.

My stepson is mildly bipolar, and right now he is stable, but spends every penny in sight on building and other things when he is in a hypomanic phase.

One reason I was happy his granddaughter is finishing high school overseas is to protect her from the toxic environment here.

Sunday, December 10, 2017

Sermon of the day

World War II podcast

Mob hysteria and witch hunts in history

Two Minute hates are not new: Getting mobs upset to kill someone is easy. It worked to kill the Gracci brothers and Socrates. Mobs would attack witches, often local abortionists but sometimes just nasty old ladies, and of course, don't forget all those "spontaneous" pogroms.

And the "witch hunt" analogy might be something to remember: because in the Middle Ages, a lot of the "witch" hysteria was just that: hysteria and scapegoating of people they dislike.

to stop the over reaction, the church instituted a court system to actually examine the evidence before the person was convicted...
and unlike the "show trials" under Stalin, the dirty little secret is that most of them were released, not convicted.

See: You tube post of a lecture series on the Inquisition: 

and here is Professor Teofilo Ruiz lecture series about medieval terror and the inquisition. LINK

one little known fact is that most of the accused were not convicted.
short Version on BBC:

Oh NO! Not Lake Woebegon

How to destroy a legend: from Mn NPR:

ST. PAUL, Minn. - Minnesota Public Radio (MPR) is terminating its contracts with Garrison Keillor and his private media companies after recently learning of allegations of his inappropriate behavior with an individual who worked with him... Based on what we currently know, there are no similar allegations involving other staff.
italics mine.

The only thing he admits to is touching a woman's back 19 years ago.   We don't have her story yet, but I hope they have the hospital report with the DNA samples, and affidavits from corroborating witnesses, because if not, this seems to be a bit over the top.

But what is worse is that they have removed the archive of Prairie home Companion from the internet. Ditto for his Writer's Almanac podcast.

Some of these can still be found individually here and there, but otherwise they seem to have entered into a huge black hole.

Hopefully some nice person will get their copies and post them on The Pirate Bay, or better yea, Internet Archives, so they are not gone forever.

Ironically, Mr. K defended Al Franken last week in the Washington Post..

This is, of course, the latest "two minute hate"... 

The horrible thing about the Two Minutes Hate was not that one was obliged to act a part, but that it was impossible to avoid joining in. Within thirty seconds any pretence was always unnecessary. A hideous ecstasy of fear and vindictiveness, a desire to kill, to torture, to smash faces in with a sledge hammer, seemed to flow through the whole group of people like an electric current, turning one even against one's will into a grimacing, screaming lunatic...[1]
Facebook is full of it, which is one reason I avoid facebook as much as possible.

What I dislike about the hysteria is that you are guilty and need to be punished: No trial, no cross examination, no "CSI" evidence.

So Andrew Klaven writes:

I'm pretty much done with the sex scandals. They were fun, but they're just going to have to carry on without me. If someone broke the law and you can prove it, prosecute him. If someone violated the rules of his organization, eject him. Other than that, if women have forgotten the fine art of slapping a man in the face, there's not a whole hell of a lot society can do for them. You keep silent for forty years and then ruin a man's career with an unprovable allegation — and that makes you a hero? Not to me.

Saturday, December 09, 2017

Don't upset the snowflakes

A lot of the western hysteria about Trumpieboy moving the US embassy to Jerusalem is that he would upset the Arab street and this would lead to more terrorism.

But what came to my mind is the saying: what do you mean they will hate you if you do this. They already hate you, so why not do it anyway.

The US military will face threats, as will the Israelis, but hey, they are already being threatened by death, so what else is new?

But this is not true for the Philippines.

The Phil Inquirer quotes Duterte as explaining one reason that the liberation of Marawi took so long is that they tried to spare the mosques, where the bad guys were hiding and storing ammunition, for fear there would be retaliation against our OFW who work in the Middle East.

He finally had to change his orders because so many innocents were being killed.

We have a million OFW in the Middle East, and they are vulnerable to jihadi attacks. So far, most have been safe, but this could easily change if the MSM snowflakes start insisting he is anti Muslim and saying he should not have attacked mosques period.

Heck, the bleeding heart types even faulted him for using a sniper to kill the guys running the war.

How dare he order an assassination on his enemies or give "shoot to kill" orders... 

They are entitled to a trial. Wait until they kill a few soldiers first before you shoot them...

Sigh. As Lolo would say: "Crazy..."


just an aside: While checking out the background of the story for the best links, I pulled up  a Newsweek article, I got a pop up ad asking if the #metoo stuff would destroy Trumpie boy next.


You mean what this propaganda two minute hate deluge in the media is not about protecting women in the workplace but destroying Trump?

This article makes it sound like Hillary is behind the kerfuffle.

Al Franken is just a sacrificial lamb for political reason, so they can say: See, it's bipartisan, and then turn their propaganda against Trump.

Yet, I wonder why they chose Franken to destroy? He represents the Paul Wellstone part of the Minnesota Democrats, (which by the way is the "DFL": The Democrat Farmer Labor party).

And he seems to be doing it well.

 but the artificial fury against his boorish behavior that seems more an extension of his comedian persona than serious sexual harassment, seems out of proportion.

take this "attack" and comment:

The woman, who was not identified, told Politico that Franken pursued her after her boss had left and she was collecting her belongings. She said she ducked to avoid his lips, and that Franken told her: “It’s my right as an entertainer.”
So he tried to kiss her (which is, by the way, a California style goodbye).That last comment is obviously a joke, but snowflakes don't have a sense of humor.

So whose toes did he step on to get such well coordinated propaganda witch hunt against him? Anyone know?

the only thing I can think of is that he was being touted as a possible presidential candidate in 2020, and Hillary wants to keep the slot open for herself.

but I'd love to know what ordinary folks in Minnesota think of this.

Give that guy a Nobel Prize

Someone has invented seedless Avocados:


so no more accidents cutting yourself when you remove the seed.

Roman soldiers in ancient China

History on line has the story and explains this "conspiracy" type theory is now becoming accepted by historians and goes into details how they got there, and what happened to them after they lost a battle to China.

It seems these Romans lived peacefully in Liqian, and 2,000 years later we have DNA evidence that over 50% of the villagers in modern day Liqian have Caucasian ancestry including green and blue eyes, increased average height and other distinguishing characteristics such as distinctly Roman noses. The people in the small village are aware of and proud of their ancestry, celebrating the Romans and showing a fond interest in bulls, a heavily worshiped animal of Roman legions.

Frank Zhang, call your office.

Philippine Christmas customs