...the Orcs themselves were very accomplished craftsmen. They had both knowledge and skills comparable to those of Men and perhaps Elves and Dwarves. They may not have possessed equivalent power on personal levels, but that is an entirely speculative matter...
Tolkien leaves it to the reader to infer what the Orcs were capable of. I think, however, that he implies their thoughts were imparted into these things because of the way he describes them: crude but effective.
The Orcs had no desire for art and artistry. Their needs for skill were entirely functional, probably reserved for the good of the community rather than the accomplishments of the individual. The Orcs represent the loss of individuality, a grief to Tolkien in real life, who often compared life in the military to the lives of the Orcs. They were soldiers and they did not need beauty and mysticism. They just needed to do their jobs.
The Orcs were not invented by Sauron or Morgoth: They were men and/or elves corrupted and changed to become what they were.
if this sounds like genetic manipulation, it might be.
The orcs were useful: They didn't like "five meals a day" like hobbits, nor did they waste time singing songs to Elbereth like Elves, nor did they fashion beautiful jewelry and toys, like the dwaves.
Their work was functional and efficient.
And the UrukHai were orcs that Saruman bred with men, to make them larger, since inbreeding and/or actual genetic manipulation had made the orcs of Moria, (where Saruman "found" his orcs) smaller to work better in the mines.
Usually when one reads of genetic manipulation it means for ubermensch....but the flip side is to get obedient underlings who can't think and obey.
Saruman just wanted to rule middle earth as a benevolent dictator, to make society more efficient.
But Sauron wanted to replace the inefficient men, elves and dwarves with his own minions, genetically modified to work efficiently....